Difference between revisions of "Super Metroid"

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{{SNES| title = Super Metroid
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|image = [[Image:SuperMetroid.png|center]]
Source: Paul Brodeur, "The Magnetic Field Menace," in "Macworld," July
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|name = Super Metroid
1990, pp. 136-145. Via Toxbase.
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|company = Nintendo
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|header = SWC
Various graphics appear in this magazine article. If you want a copy
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|bank = LoROM
of this article, please contact Melinda Lawrence, Greenpeace USA, 4649
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|interleaved = No
Sunnyside Ave. N., Seattle, Washington 98103, (206) 632-4326; or via
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|sram = 64 KB
Environet (or via Greenlink, for Greenpeace staff).
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|type = Normal + Battery
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|rom = 24 MB
======================================================================
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|country = Japan
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|romspeed = 120ns (FastROM)
THE MAGNETIC-FIELD MENACE
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|video = NTSC
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|checksum = Good 0xF8DF
Computer monitors may pose a very real threat to users
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|crc32 = D63ED5F8
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|game = Super Metroid
    As the new decade begins, most Macintosh users and other inhabi-
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}}
tants of the vast computer community have become aware that serious
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questions are being raised about the potentially harmful health ef-
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{{Extensively Hacked|name=Super Metroid}}
fects of electromagnetic emissions from display monitors. However,
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the issue has been so shrouded by denial on the part of manufacturers
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==Utilities==
and employers, and addressed with such incompetence by state and
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* [[SMILE]] is a work in progress by Jathys. It currently has support for editing rooms, item placement, enemy placement, enemy attributes, music selection, auto map, and more.
federal regulatory agencies, that computer users scarcely know what to
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think about it, who to turn to for reliable information, or how to
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==Hacks==
protect themselves.  Meanwhile, industry, government, and the medical
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There are currently three popular, complete hacks of Super Metroid.
and scientific community are mounting belated attempts to study the
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* [http://drewseph.zophar.net/ Super Metroid: Redesign] is the largest and most extensive hack. It features new physics, a world roughly twice the size of the original, new events, a few new items and abilities, and some bug fixes. It's considered very hard, and easy to get lost and stuck in, but does not allow the player to get stuck unintentionally.
problem and reach some consensus about how to deal with it.
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* [http://sukamax.hp.infoseek.co.jp/hackrom.html Limit] -Limit drastically changes the map and layout, and adds several twists and challenges. It's considered a very hard hack to beat.
    Since disease does not develop by consensus but by immutable laws
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* [http://sukamax.hp.infoseek.co.jp/hackrom.html Legacy] -Legacy retains most of the feel from the original Super Metroid with basically the same sequence of events, making several changes to room layout and the overall map. It is only slightly more difficult than the original Super Metroid.
of biology, it seems prudent to review what is known about the harmful
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* Two major hacks are currently in the works: [http://jathys.zophar.net/index.html Alliance] by Jathys, the author of SMILE, and Insanity by Kejardon, most well known for finding glitches and tricks in Super Metroid.
biological effects of low-level electromagnetic emissions from display
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* [http://www.freewebs.com/saturnsmovies/sneshacks.htm Metroid Impossible] -Metroid Impossible is not actually impossible, it just makes the game crazy hard.
monitors, power lines, and other sources -- particularly magnetic-
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* There is a minor hack that does not change anything other than the player sprite, title color, and adds the words Justin Baily's to the title screen. The hack for the player sprite being the image of Samus without her suit. There are no known glitches, it can even be flashed to a blank cart and played on the real SNES.
field emissions, which have been linked for more than ten years to the
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development of cancer -- and to understand how this knowledge has been
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==Miscellaneous==
acquired and disseminated. It also seems sensible to determine the
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There are only two versions released: NTSC and PAL. The PAL version has a number of discrepencies due to speed changes.
strength of magnetic-field emissions from monitors -- something that
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has not been done with accuracy to date -- and to relate these emis-
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==Known Dumps==
sions, insofar as possible, with what is known about their potential
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* Super Metroid (E) [!]
for harm.
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* Super Metroid (JU) [!]
    For this reason, "Macworld" has undertaken to conduct careful
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measurements of the strength of the magnetic fields given off by
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==External Links==
monitors that are commonly used with the Macintosh.  The idea is to
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*[http://jathys.zophar.net/index.html Jathys' SMILE Website]
provide accurate readings so that Macintosh users can determine for
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*[http://drewseph.zophar.net/Kejardon/ Kejardon's documents and notes for Super Metroid]
themselves whether they wish to take protective measures in order to
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reduce their exposure to magnetic fields (see "At Arm's Length").
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[[Category:Metroid series]]
 
FIRST SUSPICIONS
 
    Radiation from computer terminals first became an issue in 1977,  
 
when officials of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and
 
Health (NIOSH) measured emissions from several display monitors at the
 
"New York Times," where two young copy editors had developed incipient
 
cataracts after working on the machines for periods of a year or less.
 
The NIOSH officials reported that the electric-field and magnetic-
 
field strengths of the VLF (very-low-frequency) radio-frequency radia-
 
tion being emitted were too weak to be detected by their instruments
 
at a distance of 4 inches. As it turned out, they were trying to
 
measure the fields in terms of milliwatts per square meter, even
 
though VLF and ELF (extremely-low-frequency) fields can't be accurate-
 
ly measured in this manner.
 
    Early in 1980, NIOSH officials measured VLF magnetic-field
 
strengths of almost 9 milligauss (a gauss is a unit of strength of the
 
magnetic field, and a milligauss is 1/1000 gauss) near the flyback
 
transformers of several display monitors at newspapers in San Francis-
 
co and Oakland, California.  The NIOSH officials discounted the health
 
hazard of these fields, claiming that "there is no occupational stand-
 
ard for this frequency and these frequencies have not been shown to
 
cause biological injury."
 
    During the next two years, seven unusual clusters of birth de-
 
fects and miscarriages involving women who operated video-display
 
terminals (VDTs) were reported in Canada and the United States.
 
Instead of taking their own measurements of the machines in question,  
 
however, the health officials who investigated these cases relied on
 
the flawed NIOSH reports and characterized each of the clusters as a  
 
chance occurrence.  By this time, the regulatory officials and comput-
 
er manufacturers of both nations seemed to be falling over one another
 
in their haste to absolve computers of any blame.
 
    In March of 1981, the director of Canada's Radiation Protection
 
Bureau declared that VDTs "carry no radiation hazard."  Similar claims
 
were made before a congressional subcommittee by the U.S. Food and
 
Drug Administration's Bureau of Radiological Health and by the direc-
 
tor of standards for IBM.  In October of that year, a senior scientist
 
at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey, de-
 
clared that computer terminals "do not represent a health hazard from
 
any radiation exposure caused by their use."  (At the time, there were
 
well over 100,000 computer terminals in operation in the Bell
 
systems.)
 
 
60HZ HAZARDS EXPOSED
 
    Unaccountably, no one in industry or government said a word about
 
the pulsed 60Hz electric and magnetic fields that were being emitted
 
by display monitors (see "Cathode-Ray Tubes Explained"), even though
 
there were by then many studies in the medical literature to suggest
 
that the 60Hz alternating-current fields given off by power lines
 
might be hazardous to health.  Chief among these studies was one that
 
had been published in March of 1979 in the highly respected "American
 
Journal of Epidemiology" by epidemiologist Nancy Wertheimer and physi-
 
cist Ed Leeper, who live in Boulder, Colorado. Wertheimer and Leeper
 
had conducted an investigation showing that children in the Denver
 
area who lived in homes near electric distribution wires carrying high
 
current had died of cancer at twice the expected rate.  (Since magnet-
 
ic fields are produced by electric current, distribution wires carry-
 
ing high current produce relatively strong magnetic fields -- invisi-
 
ble lines of force that readily penetrate almost anything that happens
 
to stand in their way, including the human body.)
 
    In their article, Wertheimer and Leeper pointed out that magnetic
 
fields in homes near high-current wires might reach levels of 2 milli-
 
gauss or more "for hours or days at a time," and that if magnetic-
 
field exposure were responsible for the increased incidence of child-
 
hood cancer they had observed, the duration of exposure might be an
 
important factor.  They also suggested that the magnetic fields from
 
power lines might be promoting cancer in children by hindering the
 
ability of the body's immune system to fight the disease.
 
    Instead of taking Wertheimer and Leeper's disturbing findings as
 
a sign that the magnetic-field problem should be thoroughly investi-
 
gated, the electric-utilities industry tried to discredit their work. 
 
But in 1986 the association between magnetic fields from high-currency
 
wires and childhood cancer was confirmed by a major study conducted
 
under the auspices of the New York State Department of Health.  This
 
investigation reported that "prolonged exposure to low-level magnetic
 
fields may increase the risk of developing cancer in children." 
 
Earlier, a similar finding was announced by scientists studying child-
 
hood cancer in Sweden.  What should have been of profound concern to
 
the manufacturers and users of display monitors was that the incidence
 
of cancer in all three childhood studies was associated with 60Hz
 
magnetic-field strengths of only 2 to 3 milligauss.
 
 
COMPUTER MONITORS IMPLICATED
 
    The fact that display monitors emit significant radiation in the
 
form of pulsed ELF electric and magnetic fields did not come to light
 
until October of 1982.  At that time, Dr. Karol Marha, a biophysicist
 
at the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS) in  
 
Hamilton, Ontario, revealed that Canadian researchers had measured
 
60Hz magnetic fields greater than 2 milligauss at distances of 12
 
inches from two display monitors, and fields of approximately 1 milli-
 
gauss at a distance of 20 inches from several screens.  In 1983, CCOHS
 
issued press releases carrying Marha's warning that there was scien-
 
tific evidence to suggest that pulsed electric and magnetic fields
 
could be more harmful than nonpulsed fields, as well as his recommen-
 
dation that workplaces be redesigned so that VDT operators do not sit
 
close to their display monitors or to neighboring monitors.
 
    Marha's recommendations were ignored by government health offi-
 
cials in Canada and the United States, who failed to appreciate the
 
possible connection between the potential health hazard of alternat-
 
ing-current 60Hz power-line magnetic fields and that of the pulsed
 
60Hz magnetic fields given off by display monitors. Moreover, the
 
CCOHS press releases were not picked up by any major newspaper in the
 
United States or Canada. A year later, the medical director of the
 
"New York Times" told a congressional subcommittee that he was aware
 
of "no medical evidence of serious VDT-related health effects."  By
 
then, of course, newspapers everywhere had become highly dependent
 
upon computer technology.
 
 
SUPPORTING EVIDENCE
 
    In July of 1982, shortly before Marha's announcement that
 
display monitors were emitting potentially hazardous electric and
 
magnetic fields, Dr. Samuel Milham, Jr., a physician and epidemi-
 
ologist for the Washington State Department of Social and Health
 
Services, published a letter in the "New England Journal of Medicine"
 
that furnished a new insight into the problem.  Milham had examined
 
that data for 438,000 deaths occurring between 1950 and 1979 among
 
workers in Washington State and had found that leukemia deaths were
 
elevated in 10 out of 11 occupations involving exposure to electromag-
 
netic fields.  His pioneering study provided the starting point for
 
some 20 subsequent investigations here and abroad, which showed that
 
persons whose occupations require them to work in electromagnetic
 
fields -- among them electricians, electrical engineers, and tele-
 
phone- and power-line workers -- die of leukemia and brain cancer at a
 
much higher rate than other workers.
 
    For example, a 1984 study demonstrated that a significantly
 
higher than expected number of Maryland men who had died from brain
 
cancer had been employed in electrical occupations, and a 1988 study
 
of men who had died of brain cancer in East Texas revealed that the
 
risk for electric-utility workers was 13 times greater than that for
 
workers who were not exposed to electromagnetic fields.
 
    Additional cause for concern came in November of 1989 with the
 
announcement that a study conducted by epidemiologists at the Johns
 
Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, in Baltimore,
 
had found an elevated risk of all cancers among cable splicers working
 
for the New York Telephone Company.  Indeed, the incidence of leukemia
 
among these men, who often work close to power lines, we 7 times that
 
of other workers in the company.  Moreover, measurements of their on-
 
the-job exposure showed that the mean level of the 60Hz alternating-
 
current magnetic-field strengths to which they had been subjected was
 
only 4.3 milligauss.  Considering the fact that a pulsed ELF magnetic
 
filed level of between 4 and 5 milligauss has been measured at a dis-
 
tance of 12 inches from the Apple 13-inch color monitor and from E-
 
Machine's Color-Page 15, this is a discomfiting finding, to say the
 
least.
 
 
LABORATORY STUDIES CONCUR
 
    While epidemiologists were investigating the incidence of cancer
 
among human beings exposed to low-level electromagnetic fields, other
 
scientists were studying the effect of weak ELF fields on test ani-
 
mals. Chief among them was Dr. W. Ross Adey, a clinical neurologist
 
and neuroscientist, who was formerly the director of the Brain Re-
 
search Institute at the University of California at Los Angeles and is
 
now associate chief of staff for research at the Jerry L. Pettis
 
Memorial Veterans' Hospital, in Loma Linda, California. During the
 
1970s, Adey and his colleagues discovered that weak ELF electromagnet-
 
ic fields altered brain chemistry in living cats.  During the 1980s
 
they found that low-level electromagnetic fields can interfere with
 
the ability of T-lymphocyte cells -- the soldiers of the immune system
 
-- to kill cancer cells, which suggests that these fields may be
 
acting as cancer promoters by suppressing the immune system.
 
    In 1988, Adey and his associates demonstrated that weak 60Hz
 
electric fields similar in strength to those that can be found i the
 
tissue of a human being standing beneath a typical over-head high-
 
voltage power line (or, for that matter, in the tissue of someone
 
standing very close to a display monitor) could increase the activity
 
of an enzyme called ornithine decarboxylase, which is associated with
 
cancer promotion.
 
    Back in 1980 and 1981, even as government health officials in the  
 
United States and Canada were denying any possible connection between
 
electromagnetic emissions from display monitors and adverse pregnancy
 
outcomes among women who worked with those machines, Spanish research-
 
ers were conducting experiments showing that when chicken eggs were
 
exposed to weak pulsed ELF magnetic fields, nearly 80 percent of them
 
developed abnormally, with malformations of the cephalic nervous
 
system being particularly prevalent.  The adverse effect of pulsed
 
magnetic fields upon the development of chick embryos was confirmed in
 
1984 by scientists at the Swedish National Board of Occupational
 
Safety and Health.
 
    Later that year, however, Professor Arthur W. Guy, director of
 
the Bioelectromagnetic Research Laboratory at the University of Wash-
 
ington, in Seattle, who had been hired by IBM to review the literature
 
on the biological effects of VDT emissions, pointed out that the weak
 
magnetic-field pulses used by the Spanish researchers did not match
 
the sawtooth shape of the pulses emitted by computer display monitors,
 
and concluded that there was no valid evidence that monitor emissions
 
posed any health hazard.
 
 
FURTHER INDICATIONS
 
    Early in 1986, Guy's criticism was addressed in a Swedish study
 
conducted by Dr. Bernhard Tribukait, a professor of radiobiology in
 
the Department of Radiobiology of the world-renowned Karolinska Insti-
 
tute, in Stockholm.  Together with a colleague, Tribukait discovered
 
that the fetuses of mice exposed to weak pulsed fields with the same  
 
sawtooth shape as those given off by display monitors experienced more
 
congenital malformations that did the fetuses of unexposed test ani-
 
mals.  (This finding was reported by Tom Brokaw on "NBC Nightly News,"
 
but went unmentioned by the "New York Times" and virtually every major
 
daily newspaper in the United States.)
 
    In the spring of 1987, Dr. Hakon Frolen, of the Swedish Universi-
 
ty of Agricultural Sciences, in Uppsala, Sweden, reported that he and
 
a colleague had found a significant increase in fetal deaths and fetal
 
losses by resorption (a phenomenon similar to miscarriage in humans)
 
among pregnant mice exposed to weak pulsed magnetic fields, compared
 
with those occurring in nonexposed test animals.  In June, other
 
Swedish scientists reported that radiation similar to that emitted by
 
display monitors could cause genetic effects in exposed tissue sam-
 
ples.  An important aspect of all three Swedish studies was that the
 
radiation exposure in each of them had been designed to mimic as
 
closely as possible the sawtooth magnetic-field pulses emitted by
 
VDTs.
 
    Further evidence that weak pulsed magnetic fields might be haz-
 
ardous to health came in the spring of 1988, when the combined results
 
of a six-laboratory experiment conducted in the United States, Canada,
 
Spain, and Sweden confirmed the earlier finding that such fields could
 
indeed adversely affect the development of chick embryos. Later that
 
year, Frolen found that the fetuses of pregnant mice were most sensi-
 
tive to pulsed magnetic fields in the early stages of pregnancy, which
 
was consistent with a similar observation by Canadian and Spanish
 
researchers.
 
    At the second international VDT conference, which was held in
 
Montreal in September of 1989, Frolen described a series of experi-
 
ments in which he delayed exposing pregnant mice to pulsed magnetic
 
fields for up to nine days after conception.  The results were strik-
 
ing.  All of the mice that were exposed immediately after conception,
 
or on the first, second, or fifth day after conception, had statisti-
 
cally increased rates of resorption.
 
    Louis Slesin, the editor and publisher of VDT NEWS -- a
 
newsletter that reports six times a year on the biological effects of
 
display monitors (see "Conspicuous Consumer," in this issue, for con-
 
tact information) -- has emphasized the importance of Frolen's find-
 
ings, pointing out that the lack of any effect after the ninth day
 
following conception "clearly indicates that the pulsed magnetic
 
fields -- not some as-yet-unrecognized factor -- are damaging the
 
embryos."
 
 
INDUSTRY RESPONSES
 
    Meanwhile, the Coalition for Workplace Technology -- a powerful
 
lobbying group set up by the Computer and Business Equipment Manufac-
 
turers Association (CBEMA) and strongly supported by IBM -- had been
 
lobbying since 1984 in various state legislatures against laws de-
 
signed to protect the health of VDT workers.  Computer manufacturers
 
continued to scoff at the idea that their devices might emit hazardous
 
radiation.  One industry spokesperson, Charlotte Le Gates, the direc-
 
tor of communication for CBEMA, declared that for pregnant operators
 
to ask to be transferred away from VDTs "is like asking to be trans-
 
ferred away from a light bulb."
 
    By using this simile repeatedly, computer manufacturers and their
 
paid consultants in CBEMA and the Center for Office Technology have
 
been unquestionably successful in allaying growing concern among
 
computer users that the emissions from display monitors might be
 
hazardous.  The comparison is specious and unscientific, however.  A
 
light bulb emits no magnetic field whatsoever -- a fact that can
 
easily be ascertained by holding a gauss meter (a device that measures
 
the strength of a magnetic field) to an incandescent light bulb.  As
 
the accompanying measurements taken by "Macworld" clearly show (see
 
"Macworld Tests"), however, many display monitors DO emit magnetic
 
fields that are as strong or even stronger than the magnetic-field
 
levels that have been associated with the development of cancer in
 
children and workers.
 
 
RISK ACKNOWLEDGED
 
    The accumulation of evidence suggesting that the electromagnetic
 
fields given off by display monitors may be hazardous, together with
 
the fact that there are now some 40 million computer terminals in the  
 
workplace, raises the question of why so few epidemiological studies
 
have been conducted in the United States to determine whether monitor
 
emissions are affecting the health of American users. Astonishingly,
 
only one major epidemiological study has so far been conducted in this
 
country. It was performed by researchers at the Northern California
 
Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, in Oakland, who conducted a
 
case-control study of 1583 pregnant women who had attended Kaiser
 
Permanente obstetrics and gynecology clinics during 1981 and 1982.
 
    In an article entitled "The Risk of Miscarriage and Birth Defects
 
among Women Who Use Visual Display Terminals During Pregnancy"
 
("American Journal of Industrial Medicine," June 1988), Kaiser re-
 
searchers wrote that they had found that women who worked with VDTs
 
for more than 20 hours a week experienced a risk of both early and
 
late miscarriage that was 80 percent higher than the risk for women
 
who performed similar work without using VDTs.  In their conclusion,
 
the researchers stated, "Our case-control study provides the first
 
epidemiological evidence based on substantial numbers of pregnant VDT
 
operators to suggest that high usage of VDTs may increase the risk of
 
miscarriage."
 
 
APPLE RESPONDS
 
    As might be expected, the results of the Kaiser Permanente study,
 
together with the Swedish experiments demonstrating that the emissions
 
from display monitors can adversely affect the fetuses of test ani-
 
mals, have prompted many computer users to write to computer manufac-
 
turers to ask whether their monitors are safe to use.  One such letter
 
was sent on November 5, 1989, to John Sculley, chief executive officer
 
of Apple Computer, by Professor Harris Barron, who taught electronic
 
media in art-making at the Massachusetts College of Art in Boston for
 
25 years.  In his letter, Barron told Sculley that he was writing on a
 
Macintosh SE; that his young daughter-in-law, "an avid law school
 
scholar, sits long hours at the terminal of her own SE"; and that "she
 
and her computer-user husband intend to raise a family in the near
 
future."  (As the reader will note in "Macworld Tests," MACWORLD has
 
measured an ELF magnetic field of slightly more that 2 milligauss at a
 
distance of 12 inches from the screen of the SE display monitor.) 
 
Barron then asked whether his daughter-in-law was at risk from the
 
electromagnetic fields emitted by her monitor and told Sculley that
 
"the results of any studies that Apple has made in this regard would
 
be helpful."
 
    On December 6, 1989, Barron received an unsigned letter from
 
the Apple Customer Relations Department, thanking him for his
 
letter and informing him that some materials were enclosed for
 
his perusal.  The enclosed material consisted of an article from the
 
February 1984 issue of "Health Physics," which said that X-ray emis-
 
sions from VDTs posed no health problem; some 1984 recommendations by
 
the European Computer Manufacturers Association on how to avoid ergo-
 
nomic problems from VDT use; a 1983 policy statement issued by the
 
American Academy of Ophthalmology, which said that VDTs presented no
 
hazard to vision; and some 1985 Apple safety data sheets about the
 
testing of toner materials.
 
    On December 11, 1989, Barron wrote to Sculley to express disap-
 
pointment with Apple's response to his initial query.  "With your pro
 
forma mailing, I am now armed with 1984 materials, data so antiquated
 
that I would be embarrassed to use it, as would Apple in any of its
 
public relations," Barron said. "Reprints of ergonomic factors,
 
ocular data, toner safety data, and the 'put-to-bed' X-ray issue
 
totally ignored my one basic question on permanent harm from ELF
 
magnetic-field VDT emissions."  In conclusion, Barron told Sculley
 
that he intended to prepare a statement about his correspondence with
 
Apple for circulation to his contacts in higher education, including
 
the National Education Association.
 
 
FURTHER EQUIVOCATIONS
 
    On January 9, 1990, Barron received a reply to his second letter
 
from David C. McGraw, Apple's newly appointed manager for corporate
 
environmental health and safety. McGraw apologized for the delay and
 
confusion in getting back to Barron, and assured him that "the pro
 
forma response to your initial letter dated 11/5/89 is not the way
 
Apple wishes to respond to this important issue."  He went on to tell
 
Barron that "Apple believes that no increased risk of adverse pregnan-
 
cy outcome due to VDT work has been demonstrated," and to point out
 
that Apple's position in this regard "is supported by the American
 
Medical Association, the American College of Obstetricians and Gyne-
 
cologists, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
 
(NIOSH), and the World Health Organization (WHO)."
 
    McGraw said that the Kaiser Permanente study "drew public atten-
 
tion because of what appeared to be an increase in miscarriages among
 
women who use VDTs more than 20 hours per week," but that the re-
 
searchers who conducted it "were unable to determine the specific
 
cause of the increased rate of miscarriages."  He then noted that
 
"similar studies in Canada and Scandinavia have found no relationship
 
between VDT work and adverse pregnancy outcome."  McGraw enclosed the
 
results of a recent animal study that had been conducted for IBM and
 
Ontario Hydro by researchers at the University of Toronto, who, unlike
 
Drs. Frolen and Tribukait, had found that pulsed magnetic fields did
 
not adversely affect the fetuses of test mice.  He also recommended
 
that Barron read a compendium entitled LATEST STUDIES ON VDTs, pub-
 
lished in August 1989 by the Center for Office Technology.  (This is
 
the new name of the Coalition for Workplace Technology of the Computer
 
and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association, which had previously
 
assured computer users that the emissions from a display terminal were
 
no different than those from a light bulb.)
 
    In January of this year, McGraw sent Barron the names and resumes
 
of three people whom he described as "experts in the field of biologi-
 
cal effects of electromagnetic radiation."  One was Edwin L. Carsten-
 
sen, a professor of electrical engineering at the University of Roch-
 
ester, who had been a paid consultant of the electric-utility industry
 
for nearly 15 years and has testified for power companies in court
 
cases on several occasions.  Another was Kenneth R. Foster, a profes-
 
sor in the Department of Bioengineering at the University of Pennsyl-
 
vania, who has not only discounted the possibility that low-level
 
electromagnetic radiation can have adverse biological effects but has
 
even suggested that restrictions be placed on further investigation of
 
the problem. The third was Eleanor R. Adair, a physiologist at the
 
John Pierce Foundation, in New Haven, Connecticut, who, in spite of
 
dozens of scientific studies published in leading scientific journals
 
around the world demonstrating that weak pulsed electromagnetic fields
 
given off by display monitors and low-level fields emitted by radar
 
and other sources can cause adverse biological effects at field
 
strengths far below those necessary to produce heat, has recently been
 
quoted as saying that she has "never seen one bit of scientific evi-
 
dence -- and let me emphasize the word SCIENTIFIC -- that ELF or
 
microwave radiation has any nonthermal biological effects."
 
 
ANSWERING CRITICS
 
    Macintosh and other computer users must now decide for themselves
 
whether monitor manufacturers are dealing forthrightly with the issue
 
of display monitor emissions.  It is clear that computer users are
 
being asked by manufacturers to extend the presumption of benignity to
 
the pulsed electric and magnetic fields given off by display monitors,
 
even as scientists continue to investigate the apparent health hazard
 
posed by these emissions. One of the chief rationales behind this
 
strategy is the belief that there is no "conclusive" proof that VDT
 
emissions have any harmful effects on computer users.  Another is that
 
no biological mechanism has yet been postulated to show exactly how
 
pulsed magnetic fields might cause miscarriages and cancer.  In other
 
words, if scientists can't explain how something is happening, it  
 
can't be happening.  Someone should remind the monitor manufacturers
 
that scientists don't know exactly how inhaled asbestos fibers act to  
 
cause cancer; yet everyone knows that asbestos causes cancer, and only
 
fools would willingly expose themselves to asbestos.
 
    As it happens, a model of how a 60Hz alternating-current magnetic
 
field may cause or promote cancer has been provided by Dr. Harris
 
Busch, an oncologist, who was chairman of the Department of Pharmacol-
 
ogy of the Baylor University College of Medicine in Houston for 25
 
years and was also formerly an editor of the distinguished "American
 
Journal of Cancer Research."  After explaining that a 6 60Hz alternat-
 
ing-current magnetic field vibrates to and fro 60 times a second,
 
Busch points out that there will be a similar to-and-fro movement on
 
the part of anything magnetic in such a field.  According to Busch,
 
this means that "any kind of molecule that is in a person's brain, or
 
in a person's body, is being twisted 60 times a second up and back."
 
    Recently, Dr. W. Ross Adey has made the point that in the case of
 
weak electromagnetic fields given off by display monitors, the tissue
 
responses can take account of the regularity of the repeating pulses
 
and assume the rhythm of those pulses in a phenomenon called ENTRAIN-
 
MENT, which, in turn, can alter the normal activation of enzymes and
 
cellular immune responses in ways consistent with the promotion of
 
cancer.
 
    One does not need to be a medical doctor to appreciate that such
 
electromagnetic phenomena, which have no counterpart in man's evolu-
 
tionary history, may well prove hazardous to health.
 
 
---------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
Author:  PAUL BRODEUR, a staff writer at the "New Yorker" since 1958,
 
specializes in medical and science writing.  The winner of many na-
 
tional awards for his reporting on the dangers of asbestos, the haz-
 
ards of enzymes in household detergents, the destruction of the ozone
 
layer, and the effects of electromagnetic emissions, Brodeur's most
 
recent book is "Currents of Death" (Simon and Schuster, 1989).
 
 
---------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
[GRAPHIC ARTICLE INSERTS:]
 
 
 
CATHODE-RAY TUBES EXPLAINED
 
 
    Computer display monitors operate on much the same principle as
 
television sets.  An evacuated glass tube containing an electron gun,
 
called the cathode-ray tube (CRT) (A), produces a narrow electron beam
 
(B); a step-up transformer known as the flyback transformer (C) then
 
accelerates and directs the beam toward the front of the tube.  When
 
the beam strikes the inner surface of the CRT screen, it interacts
 
with a phosphor coating (D) on the face of the tube to generate a spot
 
of visible light.
 
    To produce a screen image, the electron beam sweeps from left to
 
right and from top to bottom in a series of raster line (E). The
 
movement of the electron beam is controlled by deflection coils (F)
 
wound like a yoke around the neck of the CRT; electric current flowing
 
through the coils produces magnetic fields that control the electron
 
beam. Increasing current in the horizontal-deflection coil forces the
 
beam from left to right; a drop in current causes the beam to return
 
to the left.  Meanwhile, an increase in the vertical-deflection coil's
 
current aims the beam down a line. This pulsing actions results in a
 
sawtooth waveform (G).
 
    The horizontal-scan frequency for a typical computer monitor is
 
generally between 10kHz and 30kHz, which falls in the very-low-fre-
 
quency (VLF) range.  Because most monitors operate at 60 to 75 frames
 
per second, their vertical-scan frequency is between 60Hz and 75Hz,
 
within the extremely-low-frequency (ELF) range.  Both electric and
 
magnetic fields are generated in the ELF and VLF ranges.
 
    In addition, 60Hz alternating-current (AC) fields originate in
 
the monitor's power transformer.  (60Hz AC current flows back and
 
forth 60 times a second.)  Since the AC fields decay rapidly over
 
distance, they can usually be measured only in the immediate vicinity
 
of the power transformer. -- P.B.
 
 
 
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
 
    While all electromagnetic radiation, from the longest radio wave
 
to the shortest gamma ray, travels at 186,000 miles per second -- the
 
speed of light -- visible light makes up only a small portion of the
 
spectrum.  AS the wavelength (shown in meters) increases, the frequen-
 
cy (shown in hertz, or cycles per second) decreases.  Display monitors
 
give off several types of electromagnetic emissions; most of the
 
emissions consist of pulsed radio-frequency (VLF) electric and magnet-
 
ic fields of between 15 and 20kHz and pulsed ELF electric and magnetic
 
fields of 60Hz.  The ELF magnetic fields is the dominant waveform
 
given off by VDTs. -- P.B.
 
 
 
MACWORLD TESTS
 
    To determine the strength of the ELF magnetic fields emitted
 
by monitors regularly used with Macintosh computers, MACWORLD
 
tested ten monitors in our labs.  Using the Holaday HI-3600-02
 
ELF/Power Frequency EMF Survey Meter, we measured emissions at 4,
 
12, 28 (arm's length), and 36 inches from the center of the
 
front, back, left, right, top, and bottom of the monitors.  (For
 
logistic reasons, we could not complete all the measurements from
 
the bottom.)  While it is important to note that magnetic-field
 
strengths may vary somewhat from monitor to monitor, even within
 
a single product line, the overall test results do confirm that
 
ELF magnetic-field emissions from monitors used with the Macin-
 
tosh are worrisome.
 
    The strongest emissions are at the sides and tops of the
 
monitors -- over 70 milligauss (mG) 4 inches from the right side
 
of the AppleColor High-Resolution RGB Monitor, for instance.  At
 
the same distance from the front, emissions are over 22mG for the
 
Apple monitor and the E-Machines ColorPage 15.  As detailed in
 
the main article, levels much lower than these have been corre-
 
lated with cell mutation and cancer in humans.  At 28 inches
 
(arm's length), however, the emissions from the front fall to
 
below 1mG.
 
 
 
AT ARM'S LENGTH
 
    While ELF magnetic-field emissions of roughly 5 to 23 milli-
 
gauss (mG) were found at 4 inches from the front of monitors commonly
 
used with the Macintosh, "Macworld" found that at 28 inches from the
 
screen, all the monitors tested at less than 1mG.  (The ambient ELF
 
magnetic-field emissions measured in the MACWORLD offices ranged from
 
0.1 to 0.5 mG.)  Macintosh users wishing to reduce exposure to pulsed
 
electromagnetic fields should position their display monitors at arm's
 
length (with fingers extended)(A).
 
    Because magnetic fields emitted from the sides and backs of most
 
monitors are considerably stronger than those given off from the
 
front, users should consider maintaining a distance of at least 4 feet
 
from the sides or back of any other monitor in the workplace (B). 
 
Keep in mind that magnetic-field emissions are not stopped by cubicle
 
partitions, walls, lead aprons, or even the human body.
 
    Curiously, there are no standards for ELF magnetic-field emis-
 
sions, although several countries, Sweden and Canada among them, have
 
developed standards for VLF magnetic-field emissions.  A number of
 
vendors -- IBM, DEC, and Phillips, for instance -- market monitors for
 
PCs that meet those standards.  For the past two years, Sigma Designs
 
has supplied the European market with monitors for the Mac that meet
 
the VLF standards, and American users can now special order these
 
monochrome and gray-scale 15-, 19-, and 21-inch monitors.  Also, any
 
monitor based on a technology other than a cathode-ray tube will have
 
the advantage of not emitting the types of pulsed radiation associated
 
with vertical-and horizontal-deflection coils.  For a discussion of
 
various products that claim to mitigate monitor emissions, see "Con-
 
spicuous Consumer" in this issue.
 
    The controversy surrounding low-frequency electromagnetic emis-
 
sions will continue until further research is completed.  In the
 
meantime, prudent avoidance -- sitting at arm's length from the front
 
and 4 feet from the sides or back of a monitor -- is a sensible solu-
 
tion.  "Macworld" is committed to documenting any new developments as
 
they relate to this issue. Stay tuned. --Suzanne Stefanac.
 
 
�������������������������������������������������������������������������
 

Revision as of 22:03, 26 November 2007


Super Metroid
SuperMetroid.png
Name Super Metroid
Company Nintendo
Header SWC
Bank LoROM
Interleaved No
SRAM 64 KB
Type Normal + Battery
ROM 24 MB
Country Japan
Video NTSC
ROM Speed 120ns (FastROM)
Revision {{{revision}}}
Checksum Good 0xF8DF
CRC32 D63ED5F8
ROM map | RAM map | Text table | Notes | Tutorials
Template:Extensively Hacked

Utilities

  • SMILE is a work in progress by Jathys. It currently has support for editing rooms, item placement, enemy placement, enemy attributes, music selection, auto map, and more.

Hacks

There are currently three popular, complete hacks of Super Metroid.

  • Super Metroid: Redesign is the largest and most extensive hack. It features new physics, a world roughly twice the size of the original, new events, a few new items and abilities, and some bug fixes. It's considered very hard, and easy to get lost and stuck in, but does not allow the player to get stuck unintentionally.
  • Limit -Limit drastically changes the map and layout, and adds several twists and challenges. It's considered a very hard hack to beat.
  • Legacy -Legacy retains most of the feel from the original Super Metroid with basically the same sequence of events, making several changes to room layout and the overall map. It is only slightly more difficult than the original Super Metroid.
  • Two major hacks are currently in the works: Alliance by Jathys, the author of SMILE, and Insanity by Kejardon, most well known for finding glitches and tricks in Super Metroid.
  • Metroid Impossible -Metroid Impossible is not actually impossible, it just makes the game crazy hard.
  • There is a minor hack that does not change anything other than the player sprite, title color, and adds the words Justin Baily's to the title screen. The hack for the player sprite being the image of Samus without her suit. There are no known glitches, it can even be flashed to a blank cart and played on the real SNES.

Miscellaneous

There are only two versions released: NTSC and PAL. The PAL version has a number of discrepencies due to speed changes.

Known Dumps

  • Super Metroid (E) [!]
  • Super Metroid (JU) [!]

External Links